Heirs of Salvation: An Answer to Penal Substitution

By Andrew Hopkins A common view of atonement in Protestant theology is substitutionary atonement. This belief has its roots in the writings of some early church fathers, though many would claim it began with the apostles. In this paper we consider one form of substitutionary atonement know as penal substitution. With this view it is […]

On the Religious Opinions of the Unconverted

by Fr. Patrick Henry Reardon In Quitting Church, her impressive study of religious sociology, Julia Duin quotes a friend who dropped out of the Orthodox Church: “The Orthodox, Emile said, are answering the question no one is asking: what is the true Church?” This comment is interesting in several respects, but I am mainly impressed […]

The Original Christian Gospel

by Fr. James Bernstein It may surprise you to hear that the original Gospel—the Good News preached by Jesus Christ and His disciples—is quite different from what is prominently presented today by the vast majority of Christians in America. For many Christians, hearing this original Gospel will involve a major paradigm shift—a radical change in […]

The Wobbly Exegetical Basis of Penal Substitutionary Satisfaction

by Fr. Patrick Henry Reardon No treatment of the Passion of Christ is complete, I think—certainly it is not biblical—if it leaves out the wrath of God. One would need to be blind not to observe in the Bible—both Testaments—how often God is said to be angry at man’s sins, or how frequently He is […]

“God’s Wrath” Was Not Part of the Theology of Israel’s Sacrificial System

by Fr. Patrick Henry Reardon Adult converts to the Orthodox Church often remark on a sense of relief—not to say liberation—they felt when they became acquainted with Orthodoxy’s teaching on Salvation. I have heard testimonies on this point times out of mind. These folks, coming mainly from Western Christian backgrounds, had previously thought about Salvation […]

Orthodox Problems with Penal Substitution

by Alexander Renault from his book “Reconsidering Tulip” The penal substitution view was completely absent from the church for over 1,000 years. It was only in the 11th century that Anselm of Canterbury began to introduce the groundwork for this kind of theology to the West. Nor was it fully developed into the doctrine we […]