Casting Out Christians

by Fr. Patrick Henry Reardon In the Gospel of St. Luke, the last of his “four beatitudes” includes a detail not found in the parallel place in St. Matthew; it is a reference to those who “revile and cast out your name as evil’ (Luke 6:22). Our understanding of this reference should begin, I think, […]

How the Scriptures Became the Scriptures

by Fr. Stephen Freeman How did the Scriptures become the Scriptures? In particular, how did early Christians decide which books would be included in the Scriptures and which books would not – for there were far more writings of the time that were set aside than those that were accepted as being Scripture? Interestingly, the […]

The Loss of A Son

by Fr. Patrick Henry Reardon Although the Israelites venerated Abraham and Isaac as their forefathers, they derived their specific lineage from Jacob. It was from Jacob’s new name, Israel, that the Israelites received their designation as a people (Genesis 32:28). The story of Jacob is a special point in Salvation History; we may think of […]

The Case For Byzantine Priority: Conclusion

by Maurice A. Robinson Concluding Observations Every variant unit can be evaluated favorably from a Byzantine-priority perspective, and all units should be carefully examined when attempting to restore the original text. While some examples of Byzantine-priority analysis appear in the present essay, it is impossible within a short study to present a complete or comprehensive […]

The Case For Byzantine Priority: Part 9

by Maurice A. Robinson Inaccuracies and misleading claims The Byzantine Textform has been caricatured by adverse critics as “late” (by MS date), “secondary” (by readings), and “corrupt” (by a false assumption of scribal proclivities). These points readily can be discussed as a matter of opposing opinion. Yet some cases exist where inaccurate and misleading claims […]

The Case For Byzantine Priority: Part 8

by Maurice A. Robinson Selected Objections to the Byzantine-Priority Hypothesis While modern eclectics demand that the Byzantine-priority hypothesis present a reasonable defense and explanation of its theory and conclusions, their own method is ahistorical, creating a text without a theory, thereby extricating themselves from complications more severe than those faced under Byzantine-priority. Were modern eclectics […]

The Case For Byzantine Priority: Part 7

by Maurice A. Robinson A very strong presumption exists that the exemplars of the earliest genealogically-unrelated minuscule MSS were uncials dating from a much earlier time. These include the minuscules of the ninth and tenth centuries, and likely many within the eleventh century as well. Their exemplars were certainly not any contemporary uncials that only […]

The Case For Byzantine Priority: Part 6

by Maurice A. Robinson Principles of External Evidence The Byzantine-priority method looks at external evidence as a primary consideration within a transmissional-historical framework. The key issue in any unit of variation is not mere number, but how each reading may have arisen and developed in the course of transmission to reflect whatever quantitative alignments and […]