The Wobbly Exegetical Basis of Penal Substitutionary Satisfaction

by Fr. Patrick Henry Reardon No treatment of the Passion of Christ is complete, I think—certainly it is not biblical—if it leaves out the wrath of God. One would need to be blind not to observe in the Bible—both Testaments—how often God is said to be angry at man’s sins, or how frequently He is […]

No Old Testament, No Christian Theology

by Fr. Patrick Henry Reardon Understanding Salvation to consist in the union of human beings with God, the Church, rather early in the history of Sacred Theology, perceived (and went on, in her conciliar determinations, to define) an intimate connection between the truth of Salvation and the truth of the Incarnation. Briefly stated, this means […]

The Three Most Important Things in Soteriology

by Fr. Patrick Henry Reardon An existential approach to Soteriology should start, I believe, by asking, “What did Jesus think he was doing when he devoted himself to the work of man’s Salvation?” It is less clear, perhaps, how to go about answering that question, particularly where to begin the inquiry. An obvious place to […]

“God’s Wrath” Was Not Part of the Theology of Israel’s Sacrificial System

by Fr. Patrick Henry Reardon Adult converts to the Orthodox Church often remark on a sense of relief—not to say liberation—they felt when they became acquainted with Orthodoxy’s teaching on Salvation. I have heard testimonies on this point times out of mind. These folks, coming mainly from Western Christian backgrounds, had previously thought about Salvation […]